www.giftededpress.com


ADVANCED DIFFERENTIATED SCIENCE BOOK

ESSENTIAL CHEMISTRY FOR GIFTED STUDENTS: PREPARATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY
Grades 4-8

ISBN 0-910609-44-6

By

Francis T. Sganga, Chemistry Educator Volusia County, Florida

Cost: $18.00 + $1.80 Postage & Handling = $19.80 Total Cost.

"This is a remarkable Hands-On-Science book for gifted students. Sganga has provided them with an advanced differentiated curriculum in a challenging and stimulating format."
Michael E. Walters, Teacher and Author.

Includes several lab demonstration activities in such areas as Oxidizing Iron, Electrical nature of Elements, Candle Chemistry, Solutions that Conduct Electricity, and Double-Replacement Reaction.

Emphasizes Hands-On-Science lessons in teaching a difficult subject.

Includes numerous Tables, Illustrations and Figures.

Presents extensive lists of questions (Memory Checks) for the student to answer at the end of each chapter. The Appendix contains detailed answers to these questions.

The book is organized in an interesting and challenging format from the simple to the complex, and from general to specific information about essential principles of general chemistry.

Examples of Topics included in each chapter are:

Chapter 1 What Is Chemistry? Definition of Chemistry, What Is an Element?, Essential Elements in Various Foods and Vitamins.


Chapter 2 Photosynthesis: The Source of Life The Ingredients Green Plants Use to Make Sugar, Atoms and Elements, Molecules and Compounds, the Sizes and Structures of Atoms, Chemical Symbols, Formulas and Equations.


Chapter 3 Grouping Elements According to Their Characteristics Mendeleev's Great Discovery, Mendeleev's Periodic Table of the Elements, Memorizing the First 17 Elements.


Chapter 4 Hydrogen, Carbon and the Mighty Little Atom Making Water from Hydrogen and Oxygen, Splitting the Water Molecule in Two, Carbon: The Element of Life.


Chapter 5 All About Chemical Bonding The Main Actors: Valence Electrons, Valence Electrons Determine Chemical Formulas, Writing Formulas based upon Electron Transfer, Ionic and Covalent Bonding.


Chapter 6 Solutions -- Polar Molecules, Acids and Bases, CO2: The Covalent Molecule We Exhale, Strong and Weak Acids and Bases, Polyatomic Ions, Pluses & Minuses must Balance in Formulas, Some Covalent Molecules Are Diatomic.


Chapter 7 Kinds of Chemical Reactions Combination or Synthesis Reactions, Decomposition Reactions, Single-Replacement Reactions, Double-Replacement Reactions, The Usefulness of Chemical Equations.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR --

Francis (Frank) Sganga received his B.S. and M.A. degrees at the University of Florida where,
as a graduate student, he taught for two years. After working with the U.S. Corps of Engineers for two years, he succumbed to an urge to teach, and wound up spending six years teaching chemistry and physics at the high school level. Teachers' salaries being what they were, his income did not meet the needs of a family of five, so he decided to move into administration. After three years as a teaching principal at a small rural school in Oak Hill, Florida, his performance earned him a promotion to the position of K-12 Science and Mathematics Consultant at the "county level." At the time there were 55 schools in the system.

During his tenure at the supervisory level, he wrote two original competitive proposals for federal grants. The first, Success in Mathematics through Aural-Reading Techniques was an individualized mathematics program at the junior high level that incorporated the use of cassette players. The second, Calculator-Assisted Mathematics for Everyday Living was designed for "General Math" students. The two grants brought some $1 million into the Volusia County, Florida school system.

In his supervisory role he spent a significant amount of time doing demonstration teaching in gifted classes, as well as conducting in-service workshops for their teachers and teachers of regular classes. For two years he taught a hands-on science course at the local junior college to elementary and junior high school teachers.

Also, during that time he became the sole author of two major mathematics programs published by Charles E. Merrill (a Bell & Howell subsidiary) that were sold internationally in English and Spanish editions with sales topping $1.5 million, and invented 15 teaching aids (two patented in his name) that were published by the St. Regis Paper Company.

His writings include A Bee on a Point, a Line and a Plane (NCTM's Mathematics Teacher); An Individualized Approach to Teaching Mathematics [at the middle school level] and How to Solve Word Problems (The Instructor); six articles on education for the local (New Smyrna Beach, Florida) newspaper, The Observer; a personal tome titled God, Where Are You? that he describes as "a well-reasoned affirmation of the existence of God" (see WWW.Sganga.net); and lastly, his latest attempt to help students understand and master an increasingly rigorous subject, Essential Mathematics for Gifted Students, published by Gifted Education Press in 2002.

Currently, he is an Educational Consultant, and still tutors students from grades 4 through junior college. His current hobbies are playing racquetball, riding his1100 cc Honda Shadow motorcycle, and writing. He is now working on Essential Electricity for Gifted Students that will include many hands-on activities. In one of the activities, students construct a unique device he invented that can detect weak currents of electricity, show simply and clearly the basic concepts underlying how generators and motors work, and the interrelated relationship between magnetism and electricity.


TABLE OF CONTENTS --

Page
FOREWORD i
LIST OF MATERIALS ii
CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? 1
Chemistry Is a Study of What Things Are Made of 1
The Chemical Elements in the Body 2
What Is an Element? 3
We Are Made Up Mostly of Gas 4
Essential Elements in Various Foods 5
The Elements in Pills: Vitamins 6
MEMORY CHECK 7
CHAPTER 2: PHOTOSYNTHESIS: THE SOURCE OF LIFE 8
The Ingredients Green Plants Use to Make Sugar 8
Atoms and Elements; Molecules and Compounds 9
The Sizes and Structures of Atoms 10
The Chemistry of Photosynthesis 11
The Miracle Substance: Chlorophyll 12
Chemical Symbols, Formulas and Equations 13
How many Molecules? How many Atoms? 14
Oxidation: Another Name for Burning 15
ACTIVITY #1 Oxidizing Iron 15
MEMORY CHECK 16
CHAPTER 3: GROUPING ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR CHARACTERISTICS 17
Mendeleev's Great Discovery 18
Mendeleev's Periodic table of the Elements 19
Some Symbols Have Latin Origins 20
Memorizing the First 17 Elements 21
ACTIVITY #2: THE ELECTRICAL NATURE OF ELEMENTS 22
The Electrical Nature of Ions 23
Usefulness of Memorizing the First 17 Elements in Order 24
MEMORY CHECK 24
CHAPTER 4. HYDROGEN, CARBON AND THE MIGHTY LITTLE ATOM 25
Making Water from Hydrogen and Oxygen 26
A Miracle! Two gases Combine to Form Water! 27
Splitting the Water Molecule in Two 28
There's a Lot of Water in Sugar 29
Carbon: The Element of Life 30
Carbon, Carbon, Everywhere 31
ACTIVITY #3: CANDLE CHEMISTRY 32
How Big Are Atoms 33
The Miniscule, but Powerful, Invisible Atom 34
MEMORY CHECK 35
CHAPTER 5. ALL ABOUT CHEMICAL BONDING 36
The Main Actors: Valence Electrons 37
The Tendency of Atoms to Become Inert 38
Metals and Non-metals 39
Valence Electrons Determine Chemical Formulas 40
Writing Formulas Based upon Electron Transfer 41
Ionic and Covalent Bonding 42
How Atoms Share Electrons 43
MEMORY CHECK 44
CHAPTER 6: SOLUTIONS 45
Polar Molecules 46
Water Easily Dissolves Polar Substances 47
ACTIVITY #4: Which Solutions Conduct Electricity? 48
Acids and Bases 49
Mixing Two Powerful Solutions That Produce a Weak One 50
CO2: The Covalent Molecule We Exhale 51
Carbonic Acid: The Soft Drink Acid 52
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 53
Swimming Pool Chemistry 54
ACTIVITY #5: TESTING pH USING A NATURAL INDICATOR 55
Polyatomic Ions 56
Pluses & Minuses must balance in Formulas 57
Some Covalent Molecules Are Diatomic 58
MEMORY CHECK 59
CHAPTER 7: KINDS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS 60
TYPE I : Combination or Synthesis Reactions 60
ACTIVITY #6: PRODUCING A COMBINATION REACTION 60
TYPE II : Decomposition Reactions 61
ACTIVITY #7: A DECOMPOSITION REACTION 61
TYPE III : Single-Replacement Reactions 62
TYPE IV : Double-Replacement Reactions 63
ACTIVITY #8: A DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTION 63
The Usefulness of Chemical Equations 64
MEMORY CHECK 65
APPENDIX 66
About the Author 71

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